‘’Swachhta” or Cleanliness was a way of life for Gandhiji. As he fought the British, he disliked several of the western customs but was candid enough to say that he learnt sanitation from the West
During a recent visit to the Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad where a photo gallery vividly depicts the ideology and life style of Mahatma Gandhi, my thoughts went around to connect the Father of Nation with an independent and clean India. The Ashram serves as a source of inspiration for we, young Indians, from the life of a Mahatma who fought a non-violent battle against the mighty British empire and won us Independence. In 2014, Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM), thus so aptly on 2nd October, Gandhiji’s birthday.
“A clean India would be the best tribute India could pay to Mahatma Gandhi on his 150th birthday anniversary in 2019”, the Prime Minister had said after launch of the mission.
‘’Swachhta” or Cleanliness was a way of life for Gandhiji. As he fought the British, he disliked several of the western customs but was candid enough to say that he learnt sanitation from the West. His dream was to introduce and spread that level of cleanliness in India. “I learnt 35 years ago that a lavatory must be as clean as a drawing-room. I learnt this in the West. I believe that many rules about cleanliness in lavatories are observed more scrupulously in the West than in the East. The cause of many of our diseases is the condition of our lavatories and our bad habit of disposing of excreta anywhere and everywhere. I, therefore, believe in the absolute necessity of a clean place for answering the call of nature and clean articles for use at the time. I have accustomed myself to them and wish that all others should do the same. The habit has become so firm in me that even if I wished to change it, I would not be able to do so. Nor do I wish to change it”. His words are pertinent and relate eminently to the Swachh Bharat Mission, a dream project of Modi, who is passionate about cleanliness.
Launched under a mission mode, the SBM has surely achieved some measurable targets in the last three years. These include construction of 28,96,367 household toilets across the country, while 43,200 wards have been covered for 100 per cent door – to – door waste collection. As per the ‘dashboard’ (real time figures) of the Swachh Bharat portal, over a million (10, 29,124) Indian Household Toilets have been constructed only in the last eight months since January 2017.
THE SWACHH BHARAT PROGRAMME HAS BEEN LINKED DIRECTLY WITH BETI BACHAO BETI PADHAO INITIATIVE. UNDER THE JOINT PROGRAMME INITIATIVE IT IS BEING ENSURED THAT THERE ARE GIRLS’ TOILETS IN ALL GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS IN 100 DISTRICTS WHICH HAVE THE LOWEST CHILD SEX RATIO
The work has really picked up pace in the recent months is evident from a huge jump, in fact more than double in the number of community and public toilets since January this year. There number has gone up from 1, 09,639 in January to 2, 71,766 in August this year.
Hundrerd per cent target has been achieved under the Swachh Vidyalaya initiative of the Narendra Modi Government with Bihar leading the table. As many as 56,912 schools have been given toilets with half of the number of toilets constructed in the girls’ schools. The other states doing commendable work under this initiative include Andhra Pradesh with 49,293 toilets completed and about 22,000 being meant only for girls’ schools. Assam achieved the figure of 35,699, Chhattisgarh 16,629, Jharkhand 15,795, Rajasthan 12,083, Telangana 36,159 and Odisha 43,501.
The Swachh Bharat programme has been linked directly with Beti Bachao Beti Padhao initiative. Under the joint programme initiative it is being ensured that there are girls’ toilets in all Government schools in 100 districts which have the lowest child sex ratio. These districts include Vaishali in Bihar, Raigarh in Chhattisgarh, Kamrup in Assam and D & N Haveli.
The mission aims to eliminate open defecation in all statutory towns by 2nd October, 2019. In addition, it also proposes to eradicate manual scavenging, introduce modern and scientific waste management, induce behavioural change with respect to healthy sanitation practices and generate awareness for sanitation. SBM also aims to augment the capacity of Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) and create an enabling environment for the private sector in waste management.
Deliverables for Swachh Bharat Mission under the NITI Ayog ‘s Three -Year Action Agenda 2017-2019-20.
ULBs spend about Rs. 500 to Rs. 1,500 per tonne on solid waste management, according to the NITI Ayog Three Year Action Agenda. Out of earmarked budget, about 60 – 70 per cent is spent on the collection of waste and 20 – 30 per cent on transportation. However, a negligible percentage is dedicated towards the treatment and disposal of waste.
Some of the sustainable disposal solutions include: Waste to energy (Incineration), thermal pyrolysis and plasma gasification technologies. While pyrolysis is not suitable for human waste due to diverse composition and plasma gasification technologies are very expensive, waste to energy is the most suitable technology as it has multi-fold benefits. In countries like Singapore, more than 37.6 per cent of waste is used for waste-to-energy plants for incineration and energy recovery.
Elimination of Open Defecation is another crucial aspect of SBM. In order to achieve the objective of becoming Open Defecation Free (ODF) by 2019, 55 million household toilets and 115,000 community toilets need to be constructed under the SBM (Gramin), as per the NITI Ayog document. Focus should be on how to ensure that there is easy access to sanitation for women, children, senior citizens and the differently abled and also that these toilets have continuous piped water supply.
The Swachh Bharat roadmap laid out before the country is clear and well defined. But to ensure a result oriented programme, there is a need for all stakeholders, mainly the citizens of India to join the campaign being led by the Prime Minister. No effort can be spared and no avenue left unexplored to achieve the target of a cleaner India.
(Smera Chawla is a Public Policy Professional, practising and writing on policy and governance issues. PIB)e disliked several of the western customs but was candid enough to say that he learnt sanitation from the West
Swachh Bharat Soars – CSR Spending Among Corporates
According to a report, 620 million people or 50% of the population in India defecate in the open. In order to address this critical situation and make sanitation a national priority, the Indian Government launched the Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) with an ambitious goal to end open defecation in India by 2019.
Along with providing government funding, the Swachh Bharat Mission has also sought active participation from the corporate sector to tackle the issue. Companies have responded to this call-to-action with enthusiasm; many leveraging Section 135 of the Companies Act, 2013, which introduced mandatory Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), to contribute to the campaign.
Government schemes being implemented with missionary zeal have registered an almost 60 per cent rise in Corporate India’s social responsibility graph, which is headed north with 47 per cent jump. This has happened because 300 BSE listed companies has spent Rs 6,871 crore on this front in 2016-17, a report said.
The intensification of projects under Skill India Mission and Swachh Bharat Mission has helped push CSR funding in the last financial year, the report said. CSR activities have also given a lot of push to quality education initiatives along with intensifying Skill India Mission and Swachh Bharat Mission.
According to Outlook magazine report 2017, the 300 companies spent Rs 6,871 crore on CSR in 2016- 17 while in 2014-15, when it became mandatory in India, the actual figure was Rs 4,678 crore. On a yearly basis, the actual CSR spend of the entities rose 8.34 per cent in 2016-17, from Rs 6,342 crore in 2015-16.
Education projects received 32 per cent of the CSR money while Swachh Bharat related programmes accounted for 7.3 per cent, the report said. Going by the state-wise distribution, Maharashtra received the maximum at 16.5 per cent, followed by Gujarat with 6.9 per cent.
Odisha has seen a sharp jump on CSR funds beneficiary matrix, jumping to the 3rd slot in 2016-17, from 8th in 2015- 16, the report said. However, seven north-east states together received just 2 per cent. This has been largely possible because of the push provided by Petroleum Minister Dharmendra Pradhan for spendings in his home state.
– CSR TIMES
IN ADDITION, IT ALSO PROPOSES TO ERADICATE MANUAL SCAVENGING, INTRODUCE MODERN AND SCIENTIFIC WASTE MANAGEMENT, INDUCE BEHAVIOURAL CHANGE WITH RESPECT TO HEALTHY SANITATION PRACTICES AND GENERATE AWARENESS FOR SANITATION
Major Components of the Swachh Bharat Mission Goal
- a) Construction of individual sanitary latrines for households below the poverty line with subsidy (80 percent) where demand exists
- b) Conversion of dry latrines into low-cost sanitary latrines
- c) Construction of exclusive village sanitary complexes for women providing facilities for hand pumping, bathing, sanitation and washing on a selective basis where there is not adequate land or space within houses and where village panchayats are willing to maintain the facilities
- d) Setting up of sanitary marts
- e) Total sanitation of villages through the construction of drains, soakage pits, solid and liquid waste disposal
- f) Intensive campaign for awareness generation and health education to create a felt need for personal, household and environmental sanitation facilities.
This would cover 1.04 crore households, provide 2.5 lakh seats of community toilets, 2.6 lakh seats of public toilets and solid waste management facility for all towns.
THE SWACHH BHARAT ROADMAP LAID OUT BEFORE THE COUNTRY IS CLEAR AND WELL DEFINED BUT TO ENSURE A RESULT ORIENTED PROGRAMME, THERE IS A NEED FOR ALL STAKEHOLDERS, MAINLY THE CITIZENS OF INDIA TO JOIN THE CAMPAIGN BEING LED BY THE PRIME MINISTER
The Toilet Story – 688 Cities Declared Open Defecation Free
Swachh Bharat Mission has gained significant momentum over the past last three years and 33,76,793 Individual Household Toilets and 1,28,946 Community Toilet Seats have so far been built. According to officials records, 688 cities have been so far declared Open Defecation Free (ODF) and 531 of them have been independently verified and certified as ODF. Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat have declared all cities and towns as ODF.
According to Govt reports, 100 per cent Door to Door collection and transport of Municipal Solid Waste has been achieved in 43,200 wards out of the total 81,015 urban wards.
– CSR TIMES
“The Swachh Bharat Mission has catalysed the conversation around sanitation, right from the streets to the boardrooms of corporate India. However, despite substantial support from the corporate sector, the road ahead remains challenging. We need to recognise that tackling this issue is as much about changing ingrained behaviour and social norms as it is about infrastructure. To address these gaps and move forward we need to bring together key players in the sanitation ecosystem and drive collective efforts towards ending open defecation in India. We must engage in the full cycle of ‘Build, Use, Maintain and Treat.’ The India Sanitation Coalition aims to do this by creating a dynamic platform for companies, civil society groups, government, financial institutions, media and multilateral organizations and experts to find sustainable solutions for sanitation.”
— Naina Lal Kidwai
Chair, India Sanitation Coalition
CSR Spending On Water, Sanitation & Hygiene
Budget Range No. of Companies
Less than Rs 1 crore to Rs 1 8
Rs 1 to Rs 5 crore 11
Rs 5 to Rs 15 crore 6
More than Rs 15 crore 8
TOP 5 Companies With CSR Spending On Water, Sanitation & Hygiene
PSUs NON PSUs
Coal India — Tata Consultancy Services
Power Finance Corporation — Bharti Airtel
ONGC — Bharti Infratel
GAIL India — Tata Steel
State Bank of India — Mahindra & Mahindra